Take risks subject to vigilant evaluation and public review. 

Advocates

Compare

Daniel Botkin

“Not only is monitoring of the state of nature required, but scientific research must be an integral part of the management of nature.” Discordant Harmonies, 195

Wetland restoration source: wikimedia

If, as Daniel Botkin argues, ecosystems are subject to unpredictable and ever-changing change, how then can we act? If we can't definitively determine how many wolves there should be, or what the proper level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is, how can we responsibly manage animal populations and set carbon targets? The Postscript to Botkin's Discordant Harmonies offers a set of instructions for a land-use scheme that can allow for real-time testing and response, in which the maintenance of ecosystems is simultaneously a site for engineering pilot tests and scientific analysis.

Botkin proposes the construction of “three kinds of natural areas that we must maintain in the future.”

The first, “no-action wilderness” would be “an area untouched by direct human actions, no matter what happens. This kind of wilderness is necessary for observation as a baseline from which scientists can measure the effects of human actions elsewhere; it is an essential calibration of the dials we should set upto monitor the state of nature. Such areas are also important because they will help in the mainenance of biological diversity. Some of them may be pleasant for recreation, but some may not be, and some may become a nature never seen before.

"The second kind, preagricultural wilderness, is an area that has the appearance of landscape or seascape that most closely matches the ideal of wilderness as it has been thought about in recent decades. In North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, and other places in which the time of arrival of modern technological man is readily dated, the idea is to create natural areas that appear as they did when first viewed by the European explorers. … If natural means simply before human intervention, then all these habiats could be claimed as natural, contrary to what people really mean and really want. What people want in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area is the wilderness as seen by the voyageurs and a landscape that gives the feeling of being untouched by people.

“The conservation area, the third type of natural region, is set aside to conserve biological diversity, either for a specific species—for example, the Kirtland's warbler—or for a kind of ecological community. Because we have so altered the landscape and have allowed inadvertently only small patches of former habitats to remain, most of these areas require active intervention on our part if they are to persist.” Discordant Harmonies, 194-195.

Botkin describes a world beyond wilderness, and beyond a nature outside of human existence. “Nature in the twenty-first century will be a nature that we make.” Discordant Harmonies, 193

Commentary

Heather Rogers

"Well who sets the true cost? Where does it start? Where does it stop? I like the idea. I think it's an important and useful concept. But how do you actually do that? If you actually did that the economy would crash. We wouldn't be able to afford to buy anything. Realistically that isn't going to work. So, how do we actually deal with what the idea of true cost pricing is pointing at? Which is, how do we not destroy nature?  Let's just do that."

(Underdome Interview)

References

Comments (3355)

my blog
Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon.

arbazkhan wrote 18 weeks 3 days ago

great post really appreciable work. That will be valuable to everyone who uses it, including myself. Many thanks!
new year

Shahidkapoor wrote 18 weeks 4 days ago

Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon.

buy real facebook likes

arbazkhan wrote 18 weeks 4 days ago

We keep up with the latest techniques of building and have qualified tradesmen to ensure that your job/project is carried out safely. We also make sure that we keep to the highest standards on projects and everyone who works for us is health & safety trained.
cccam

arbazkhan wrote 18 weeks 4 days ago

larrysgoldinvestmentblog.weebly.com
Mmm.. good to be here in your article or post, whatever, I think I should also work hard for my own website like I see some good and updated working in your site.

arbazkhan wrote 18 weeks 4 days ago

I like all details that you provide in your articles. garden gadgets

Anonymous wrote 18 weeks 5 days ago

Great write-up, I am a big believer in commenting on blogs to inform the blog writers know that they’ve added something worthwhile to the world wide web!..
The EZ Battery Reconditioning

David John wrote 18 weeks 5 days ago

حذف اکانت تلگرام
Amazing knowledge and I like to share this kind of information with my friends and hope they like it they why I do.

arbazkhan wrote 18 weeks 5 days ago

حذف اکانت تلگرام
I’m happy I located this blog! From time to time, students want to cognitive the keys of productive literary essays composing. Your first-class knowledge about this good post can become a proper basis for such people.

arbazkhan wrote 18 weeks 5 days ago

brand asset valuator model
Great info! I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don’t know what to say except that I have.

arbazkhan wrote 18 weeks 5 days ago

Master engineers of outsource Android application advancement organization has acquainted an improvement with the cell phone in commercial center. moviehdapp.org

aftabak wrote 18 weeks 6 days ago

metallsonde
Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon.

arbazkhan wrote 18 weeks 6 days ago

writing doc
Many thanks for the exciting blog posting! Simply put your blog post to my favorite blog list and will look forward for additional updates. Simply wanted to write down a word in order to say thanks to you for those wonderful tips.

arbazkhan wrote 18 weeks 6 days ago

I regularly visit this site to check out the events and functions and sometimes for resources. However, it has been a while that you have shared some news about latest or upcoming events.
ÏÇäáæÏ ÇíäÓÊǐÑÇã

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 50 min ago

Amazing knowledge and I like to share this kind of information with my friends and hope they like it they why I do.
ÏÇäáæÏ ÇíäÓÊǐÑÇã

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 2 hours ago

Your work here on this blog has been top notch from day 1. You've been continously providing amazing articles for us all to read and I just hope that you keep it going on in the future as well. Cheers!
Click here

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 15 hours ago

Easily, the article is actually the best topic on this registry related issue. I fit in with your conclusions and will eagerly look forward to your next updates. Just saying thanks will not just be sufficient, for the fantasti c lucidity in your writing. I will instantly grab your rss feed to stay informed of any updates.
חיטוי ידיים מהיר

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 15 hours ago

מכשיר החייאה
such an interesting article here.I was searching for something like that for quite a long time and at last I have found it here.

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 22 hours ago

It's been good to see your blog when I always look for such type of blogs. It’s great to discover the post here.
Jimmy Kim Email Tools

Alex John wrote 19 weeks 23 hours ago

animated thanksgiving clip art images

Thanks once again

Jonah wrote 19 weeks 1 day ago

Experiencing your article has awed me and left my mouth watery. I adore your method for readiness of snacks and treats and these are one of the best formulas I have seen in this way. I have as of now bookmarked your page for further visits. Keep it up.
Daytona Beach Personal Injury Attorney

Barbaraa wrote 19 weeks 1 day ago

buy real facebook likes
Great info! I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don’t know what to say except that I have.

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 1 day ago

עיצוב וייצור מוצר
I'm going to read this. I'll be sure to come back. thanks for sharing. and also This article gives the light in which we can observe the reality. this is very nice one and gives indepth information. thanks for this nice article

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 2 days ago

יצור המוני
such an interesting article here.I was searching for something like that for quite a long time and at last I have found it here.

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 2 days ago

יום הולדת בנים 8
This is exactly what I was looking for. Thanks for sharing this great article! That is very interesting Smile I love reading and I am always searching for informative information like this!

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 2 days ago

מפעילות לימי הולדת בנות 7
wow, great, I was wondering how to cure acne naturally. and found your site by google, learned a lot, now i’m a bit clear. I’ve bookmark your site and also add rss. keep us updated.

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 2 days ago

Your blogs have allured me a lot. I’ll again visit this great site to get more valuable stuff.
buyvyvanse.online

Alex John wrote 19 weeks 2 days ago

bothbest bamboo at pinterest, bothbest bamboo at houzz, bothbest bamboo at ecoweb, bothbest bamboo flooring official site, bothbest bamboo flooring official site, bothbest bamboo at globalwood, bothbest bamboo at linkedin

Anonymous wrote 19 weeks 2 days ago

I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article. I am hoping the same best work from you in the future as well. GradeMiners.com Review

GradeMiners.com Review wrote 19 weeks 2 days ago

Hi there, I found your website via Google while searching for a related topic, your website came up, it looks great. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.
credit card numbers with cvv and full of money

Anonymous wrote 19 weeks 2 days ago

The web site is lovingly serviced and saved as much as date. So it should be, thanks for sharing this with us.
Clicktraveltips

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 3 days ago

Cat Training Tips
Get advice on cat training and cat behavior problems from a cat behaviorist. Training tips for the litter box, biting,

clawing, meowing, spraying, scratch post and get more advice to click here

Best Cat Training Tips for beginners
Understanding Cat Behavior

Cat Training Tips wrote 19 weeks 4 days ago

buy real facebook likes
Great info! I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don’t know what to say except that I have.

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 4 days ago

Excellent information on your blog, thank you for taking the time to share with us. Amazing insight you have on this, it's nice to find a website that details so much information about different artists
http://hotelseasonstar.com/
hcg diet

hcg diet wrote 19 weeks 5 days ago

you could check site now
Many thanks for the exciting blog posting! Simply put your blog post to my favorite blog list and will look forward for additional updates. Simply wanted to write down a word in order to say thanks to you for those wonderful tips.

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 5 days ago

Wish you happy new year

New beginnings, fresh starts, reaffirmations of love and promises for a brighter future all come to mind as we ring in a New Year. There are the superficial, yet purposeful, promises we make to ourselves. We resolve to get in shape, lose weight, improve career paths, and the like. Then, there are the heartfelt promises we make to others, whether aloud or in our minds. We want to care more, express love more, reverse bad feelings in old relationships or seek out new loving relationships. We try our very best to put these desires into words. Find the perfect words here! Choose among hundreds of genuine heartfelt Happy New Year wishes and greetings for your family, friends and loved ones.

Wish you happy new year
Wish you happy new year
Wish you happy new year
Wish you happy new year
Wish you happy new year

tamim wrote 19 weeks 6 days ago

You completed a number of nice points there. I did a search on the issue and found nearly all people will have the same opinion with your blog.
Withdraw Bitcoins through ATM Card locally

Anonymous wrote 19 weeks 6 days ago

I haven’t any word to appreciate this post.....Really i am impressed from this post....the person who create this post it was a great human..thanks for shared this with us.
Piano For All Review

David John wrote 19 weeks 6 days ago

יום הולדת בנים 8
Your blogs further more each else volume is so entertaining further serviceable It appoints me befall retreat encore. I will instantly grab your rss feed to stay informed of any updates.

arbazkhan wrote 19 weeks 6 days ago

Wish you happy new year

New beginnings, fresh starts, reaffirmations of love and promises for a brighter future all come to mind as we ring in a New Year. There are the superficial, yet purposeful, promises we make to ourselves. We resolve to get in shape, lose weight, improve career paths, and the like. Then, there are the heartfelt promises we make to others, whether aloud or in our minds. We want to care more, express love more, reverse bad feelings in old relationships or seek out new loving relationships. We try our very best to put these desires into words. Find the perfect words here! Choose among hundreds of genuine heartfelt Happy New Year wishes and greetings for your family, friends and loved ones.

http://99entertainment.livejournal.com/
https://today99entertainment.wordpress.com/
http://99entertainments.jimdo.com/
https://today99entertainment.blogspot.com/
http://educationresults20.wixsite.com/today99entertainment

tamim wrote 20 weeks 1 hour ago

ratemywriters
wow, great, I was wondering how to cure acne naturally. and found your site by google, learned a lot, now i’m a bit clear. I’ve bookmark your site and also add rss. keep us updated.

arbazkhan wrote 20 weeks 2 hours ago

buy facebook likes cheap

Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon.

arbazkhan wrote 20 weeks 1 day ago

Thanks for taking the time to discuss this, I feel strongly about it and love learning more on this topic. If possible, as you gain expertise, would you mind updating your blog with extra information? It is extremely helpful for me write my paper

write my paper wrote 20 weeks 1 day ago

Great post however , I was wanting to know if you could write a litte more on this subject? I’d be very thankful if you could elaborate a little bit further. Bless you!
website

Anonymous wrote 20 weeks 1 day ago

ProMed Podiatry Clinic is committed to providing professional, caring and friendly services to every patient we treat.Ingrown nails gold coast

Ingrown nails gold coast wrote 20 weeks 1 day ago

buy real facebook likes
You have done a great job. I will definitely dig it and personally recommend to my friends. I am confident they will be benefited from this site

arbazkhan wrote 20 weeks 1 day ago

Hello! I just wish to give an enormous thumbs up for the nice info you've got right here on this post. I will probably be coming back to your weblog for more soon
buy targeted facebook likes

arbazkhan wrote 20 weeks 1 day ago

You guys abolish it real straightforward for all the oldsters out there.
best

Alex John wrote 20 weeks 2 days ago

Decent post. I was checking always this web journal and I'm awed! To a great degree helpful data extraordinarily the last part I nurture such data a considerable measure. I was looking for this specific information for quite a while. Much obliged to you and good fortunes. Visit Here

nathon wrote 20 weeks 2 days ago

Add A Comment

The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Allowed HTML tags: <a> <em> <strong> <cite> <code> <ul> <ol> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <img> <div> <pre> <address> <h1> <h2> <h3> <h4> <h5> <h6> <blockquote> <p>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Use <bib>citekey</bib> or [bib]citekey[/bib] to insert automatically numbered references.

More information about formatting options

By submitting this form, you accept the Mollom privacy policy.