Take risks subject to vigilant evaluation and public review. 

Advocates

Compare

Daniel Botkin

“Not only is monitoring of the state of nature required, but scientific research must be an integral part of the management of nature.” Discordant Harmonies, 195

Wetland restoration source: wikimedia

If, as Daniel Botkin argues, ecosystems are subject to unpredictable and ever-changing change, how then can we act? If we can't definitively determine how many wolves there should be, or what the proper level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is, how can we responsibly manage animal populations and set carbon targets? The Postscript to Botkin's Discordant Harmonies offers a set of instructions for a land-use scheme that can allow for real-time testing and response, in which the maintenance of ecosystems is simultaneously a site for engineering pilot tests and scientific analysis.

Botkin proposes the construction of “three kinds of natural areas that we must maintain in the future.”

The first, “no-action wilderness” would be “an area untouched by direct human actions, no matter what happens. This kind of wilderness is necessary for observation as a baseline from which scientists can measure the effects of human actions elsewhere; it is an essential calibration of the dials we should set upto monitor the state of nature. Such areas are also important because they will help in the mainenance of biological diversity. Some of them may be pleasant for recreation, but some may not be, and some may become a nature never seen before.

"The second kind, preagricultural wilderness, is an area that has the appearance of landscape or seascape that most closely matches the ideal of wilderness as it has been thought about in recent decades. In North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, and other places in which the time of arrival of modern technological man is readily dated, the idea is to create natural areas that appear as they did when first viewed by the European explorers. … If natural means simply before human intervention, then all these habiats could be claimed as natural, contrary to what people really mean and really want. What people want in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area is the wilderness as seen by the voyageurs and a landscape that gives the feeling of being untouched by people.

“The conservation area, the third type of natural region, is set aside to conserve biological diversity, either for a specific species—for example, the Kirtland's warbler—or for a kind of ecological community. Because we have so altered the landscape and have allowed inadvertently only small patches of former habitats to remain, most of these areas require active intervention on our part if they are to persist.” Discordant Harmonies, 194-195.

Botkin describes a world beyond wilderness, and beyond a nature outside of human existence. “Nature in the twenty-first century will be a nature that we make.” Discordant Harmonies, 193

Commentary

Heather Rogers

"Well who sets the true cost? Where does it start? Where does it stop? I like the idea. I think it's an important and useful concept. But how do you actually do that? If you actually did that the economy would crash. We wouldn't be able to afford to buy anything. Realistically that isn't going to work. So, how do we actually deal with what the idea of true cost pricing is pointing at? Which is, how do we not destroy nature?  Let's just do that."

(Underdome Interview)

References

Comments (3534)

I came onto your blog while focusing just slightly submits. Nice strategy for next, I will be bookmarking at once seize your complete rises khatrimaza south

sl786982 sl786982 wrote 6 weeks 3 days ago

I am always searching online for articles that can help me. There is obviously a lot to know about this. I think you made some good points in Features too. Keep working, great job! gmail.com

sl786982 sl786982 wrote 6 weeks 3 days ago

I love the blog. Great post. It is very true, people must learn how to learn before they can learn. lol i know it sounds funny but its very true. . alesia bami

sl786982 sl786982 wrote 6 weeks 3 days ago

I thought it was going to be some boring old post, but it really compensated for my time. Specialist Endocrinology - dietitian

sl786982 sl786982 wrote 6 weeks 3 days ago

This is a great inspiring article.I am pretty much pleased with your good work.You put really very helpful information. Keep it up. Keep blogging. Looking to reading your next post.cccam serve

HITLARBO wrote 6 weeks 3 days ago

This is a great inspiring article.I am pretty much pleased with your good work.You put really very helpful information. Keep it up. Keep blogging. Looking to reading your next post

HITLARBO wrote 6 weeks 3 days ago

This is a great inspiring article.I am pretty much pleased with your good work.You put really very helpful information. Keep it up. Keep blogging. Looking to reading your next post. Selling a Home

sl786982 sl786982 wrote 6 weeks 4 days ago

Took me time to read all the comments, but I really enjoyed the article. It proved to be Very helpful to me and I am sure to all the commenters here! It’s always nice when you can not only be informed, but also entertained! GPT Sites

sl786982 sl786982 wrote 6 weeks 4 days ago

If you are being attentive to learn several strategies then you ought to browse this article, I am certain you'll get much additional from this article.
lab report order

Alex John wrote 6 weeks 4 days ago

دانلود سریال جدید

دانلود سریال, دانلود رایگان سریال, دانلود سریال جدید, دانلود فیلم و سریال با لینک مستقیم, دانلود فیلم های جدید و برتر, دانلود رایگان فیلم و سریال با لینک مستقیم

arbazkhan wrote 6 weeks 4 days ago

Orlando plumber
You have done a great job. I will definitely dig it and personally recommend to my friends. I am confident they will be benefited from this site

arbazkhan wrote 6 weeks 5 days ago

Your blogs are totally value gift compute and energy.
help with essay

Alex John wrote 6 weeks 6 days ago

oscars live
Mmm.. good to be here in your article or post, whatever, I think I should also work hard for my own website like I see some good and updated working in your site.

arbazkhan wrote 6 weeks 6 days ago

Took me time to read all the comments, but I really enjoyed the article. It proved to be Very helpful to me and I am sure to all the commenters here! It’s always nice when you can not only be informed, but also entertained!
Final Year Projects

Anonymous wrote 6 weeks 6 days ago

I'd like to take the power of thanking you for that specialized guidance I've constantly enjoyed viewing your blog.
persuasion paper

Alex John wrote 7 weeks 1 hour ago

Very interesting subject , regards for putting up.

website visitors

Anonymous wrote 7 weeks 1 day ago

I am always searching online for articles that can help me. There is obviously a lot to know about this. I think you made some good points in Features also. Keep working, great job!
advantages of having the finest sleepjunkie praise

Anonymous wrote 7 weeks 1 day ago

AR 10 rifle kit
We keep up with the latest techniques of building and have qualified tradesmen to ensure that your job/project is carried out safely. We also make sure that we keep to the highest standards on projects and everyone who works for us is health & safety trained.

arbazkhan wrote 7 weeks 1 day ago

AR 10 kit
This is exactly what I was looking for. Thanks for sharing this great article! That is very interesting Smile I love reading and I am always searching for informative information like this!

arbazkhan wrote 7 weeks 1 day ago

The web site is lovingly serviced and saved as much as date. So it should be, thanks for sharing this with us.
best turmeric supplement

arbazkhan wrote 7 weeks 2 days ago

Great info! I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don’t know what to say except that I have.
best fish oil supplement

arbazkhan wrote 7 weeks 2 days ago

Awesome! It sounds great. A debt of gratitude is in order for sharing.. youtube comments buy

Anonymous wrote 7 weeks 3 days ago

Hello para penggemar Foto Hot Instagram apa sekarang kalian mencari Foto Jessica Mila Cantik kalau memang demikian silahkan klik juga Foto Kimberly Ryder Mandi Mandi dan jangan lupa Foto Amel Alvi Hot, karena itu juga pasti kalian suka. Kami juga punya Foto Pamela Bowie Agama dan Foto Via Vallen 2017 itulah sebabnya Hebohkan Dunia membuat artikel Foto Sabina Altynbekova Biodata karena memang banyak yang penasaran dengan Foto Faradina Tika Cantik walaupun Foto Winny Putri Lubis Tanpa Busana juga sedang naik daun. Sekian dulu ya semoga Foto Alya Dior Siapa Alya Dior dan juga Foto Vega Darwanti Presenter Seksi bisa membantu bagi kamu yang memang mencarinya. -Tim Hebohkan Dunia-

Eboh Si Heboh wrote 7 weeks 3 days ago

couples massage
Mmm.. good to be here in your article or post, whatever, I think I should also work hard for my own website like I see some good and updated working in your site.

arbazkhan wrote 7 weeks 3 days ago

I am always searching online for articles that can help me. There is obviously a lot to know about this. I think you made some good points in Features also. Keep working, great job!
facebook

imranuddin wrote 7 weeks 3 days ago

http://clickergame.org
Your blogs further more each else volume is so entertaining further serviceable It appoints me befall retreat encore. I will instantly grab your rss feed to stay informed of any updates.

arbazkhan wrote 7 weeks 3 days ago

My friend recommended this blog and he was totally right keep up the fantastic work. Homework Assistance Australia

Homework Assistance Australia wrote 7 weeks 4 days ago

I have read many posts from here and all are very informative for me. You have shared quality stuff on this website with us and I will must recommend others to visit and read stuff from here.Happy Valentines Day 2017
Valentines Day 2017
Valentines Day Messages

Valentines Day Quotes wrote 7 weeks 4 days ago

My friend recommended this blog and he was totally right keep up the fantastic work. Vtuitions

Vtuitions wrote 7 weeks 4 days ago

I am pretty sure about this information you shared because its really helpful for everyone. Programming Project Help Service

Programming Project Help Service wrote 7 weeks 4 days ago

I am all that much satisfied with the substance you have specified. I needed to thank you for this extraordinary article.  Cleaner Brooklyn

Cleaner Brooklyn wrote 7 weeks 6 days ago

I really like your blog post very much. You have really shared a informative and interesting blog post with people.
long men's undershirts

Aliyna seo wrote 7 weeks 6 days ago

http://clickergame.org
I simply want to tell you that I am new to weblog and definitely liked this blog site. Very likely I’m going to bookmark your blog . You absolutely have wonderful stories. Cheers for sharing with us your blog.

somee wrote 7 weeks 6 days ago

Thanks for sharing this information. I really like your blog post very much. You have really shared a informative and interesting blog post with people.. home cleaning new york/a>

assasd wrote 7 weeks 6 days ago

I would also motivate just about every person to save this web page for any favorite assistance to assist posted the appearance.
best weight loss pills
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8VVnro33I28

somee wrote 7 weeks 6 days ago

I agree with you. This post is truly inspiring. I like your post and everything you share with us is current and very informative, I want to bookmark the page so I can return here from you that you have done a fantastic job Dofollow Blog Comments

Dofollow Blog Comments wrote 8 weeks 5 hours ago

I discovered your site ideal for me. It consists of wonderful and useful posts. I've read many of them and also got so much from them. In my experience, you do the truly amazing.Truly i'm impressed out of this publish
here

arbazkhan wrote 8 weeks 5 hours ago

I simply want to say I'm newbie to blogs and definitely loved you're web page. Likely I’m likely to bookmark your blog . You absolutely come with remarkable stories. Regards for revealing your blog site. Very good article post.Really thank you! Really Great. keep it up
http://pakistan.jobz.pk/

Entertainment Pakistan wrote 8 weeks 5 hours ago

I agree with you. This post is truly inspiring. I like your post and everything you share with us is current and very informative, I want to bookmark the page so I can return here from you that you have done a fantastic job Dofollow Blog Comments

Dofollow Blog Comments wrote 8 weeks 6 hours ago

Great post, you have pointed out some excellent points, I as well believe this is a very superb website.
voyance gratuite par telephone

Aliyna Tech wrote 8 weeks 16 hours ago

Last month, when i visited your blog i got an error on the mysql server of yours.*~,”*
ilang.in

Anonymous wrote 8 weeks 1 day ago

I would be appreciating all of your articles and blogs as a result of their suiting up mark.
online homework service

Alex John wrote 8 weeks 1 day ago

Your blog is one of a kind, i love the way you organize the topics.:’-”‘
lipotropic b12 injections

Roma wrote 8 weeks 1 day ago

Nice blog post.
dealindiaweb

malvi wrote 8 weeks 2 days ago

Tiep theo dieu ma cac nha cai khac khong the co do la tai thể thao online qq188 con co den tan 3 nha cung cap gaming keo ca do hang dau the gioi hoi tu ve day va tich hop nen 3 phong choi noi tieng la :
1. O-THE THAO
2. I-THE THAO .
3. C-THE THAO.
Day la cac suu lua chon rat toi uu cho nguoi choi. Chuc cac ban choi tai the thao qq188 luon gap nhieu van do va gat hai that nhieu thanh cong ban nhe.

thethaoqq188q wrote 8 weeks 2 days ago

It's suitable time to make a few arrangements for the future and the time has come to be glad. I have perused this post and on the off chance that I might I be able to wish to propose you few intriguing things or exhortation.
Trust Flow

Approach SEO wrote 8 weeks 2 days ago

I see the superlative contents on your blogs and I perfectly enjoy going through them.mario kart ds rom

alex wrote 8 weeks 2 days ago

Bigg Boss 10 Winner Name
Bigg Boss 10 winner 2016

Bigg Boss 10 winner 2016 wrote 8 weeks 3 days ago

Add A Comment

The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Allowed HTML tags: <a> <em> <strong> <cite> <code> <ul> <ol> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <img> <div> <pre> <address> <h1> <h2> <h3> <h4> <h5> <h6> <blockquote> <p>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Use <bib>citekey</bib> or [bib]citekey[/bib] to insert automatically numbered references.

More information about formatting options

By submitting this form, you accept the Mollom privacy policy.