Take risks subject to vigilant evaluation and public review. 

Advocates

Compare

Daniel Botkin

“Not only is monitoring of the state of nature required, but scientific research must be an integral part of the management of nature.” Discordant Harmonies, 195

Wetland restoration source: wikimedia

If, as Daniel Botkin argues, ecosystems are subject to unpredictable and ever-changing change, how then can we act? If we can't definitively determine how many wolves there should be, or what the proper level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is, how can we responsibly manage animal populations and set carbon targets? The Postscript to Botkin's Discordant Harmonies offers a set of instructions for a land-use scheme that can allow for real-time testing and response, in which the maintenance of ecosystems is simultaneously a site for engineering pilot tests and scientific analysis.

Botkin proposes the construction of “three kinds of natural areas that we must maintain in the future.”

The first, “no-action wilderness” would be “an area untouched by direct human actions, no matter what happens. This kind of wilderness is necessary for observation as a baseline from which scientists can measure the effects of human actions elsewhere; it is an essential calibration of the dials we should set upto monitor the state of nature. Such areas are also important because they will help in the mainenance of biological diversity. Some of them may be pleasant for recreation, but some may not be, and some may become a nature never seen before.

"The second kind, preagricultural wilderness, is an area that has the appearance of landscape or seascape that most closely matches the ideal of wilderness as it has been thought about in recent decades. In North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, and other places in which the time of arrival of modern technological man is readily dated, the idea is to create natural areas that appear as they did when first viewed by the European explorers. … If natural means simply before human intervention, then all these habiats could be claimed as natural, contrary to what people really mean and really want. What people want in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area is the wilderness as seen by the voyageurs and a landscape that gives the feeling of being untouched by people.

“The conservation area, the third type of natural region, is set aside to conserve biological diversity, either for a specific species—for example, the Kirtland's warbler—or for a kind of ecological community. Because we have so altered the landscape and have allowed inadvertently only small patches of former habitats to remain, most of these areas require active intervention on our part if they are to persist.” Discordant Harmonies, 194-195.

Botkin describes a world beyond wilderness, and beyond a nature outside of human existence. “Nature in the twenty-first century will be a nature that we make.” Discordant Harmonies, 193

Commentary

Heather Rogers

"Well who sets the true cost? Where does it start? Where does it stop? I like the idea. I think it's an important and useful concept. But how do you actually do that? If you actually did that the economy would crash. We wouldn't be able to afford to buy anything. Realistically that isn't going to work. So, how do we actually deal with what the idea of true cost pricing is pointing at? Which is, how do we not destroy nature?  Let's just do that."

(Underdome Interview)

References

Comments (3355)

I think this is an informative post and it is very useful and knowledgeable. therefore, I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article.
use on android

arbazkhan wrote 8 weeks 2 days ago

Hi there, I found your blog via Google while searching for such kinda informative post and your post looks very interesting for me.
shopbrumano

devidmiller5060 wrote 8 weeks 3 days ago

Dailymotion video downloader

Try Dailymotion video downloader to download videos from dailymotion.

Anonymous wrote 8 weeks 3 days ago

Dailymotion video downloader

Try Dailymotion video downloader to download videos from dailymotion.

Anonymous wrote 8 weeks 3 days ago

Dailymotion video downloader

Try Dailymotion video downloader to download videos from dailymotion.

Anonymous wrote 8 weeks 3 days ago

Dailymotion video downloader

Try Dailymotion video downloader to download videos from dailymotion.

Anonymous wrote 8 weeks 3 days ago

non goverment outlook addresses its symptoms. For example, you could go along following to (NGO's) to precise ngo registration or two type of ngo registration In terms of bureau registration should have work registration in indian accomplishment 1860.ngo registration

ngo registration wrote 8 weeks 3 days ago

Fundraising - There are many ways to profit practicing in fundraising ruckus to encourage lift funds and awareness for Joy Home for Children. Giving occurring a tiny bit of your mature to lift some money can be in tilt of view of fact rewarding.

what is ngo wrote 8 weeks 3 days ago

This is a good post. This post gives truly quality information. I’m definitely going to look into it. Really very useful tips are provided here. Thank you so much. Keep up the good works. Distributor ICA - PT Visindo Global Teknologi

Distributor ICA - PT Visindo Global Teknologi wrote 8 weeks 3 days ago

only of individuals then voting rights shall be based on a single vote for every member.
only of producer institutions then voting rights on the basis of their participation.
combination of both individuals and producer institutions then voting rights shall be based on a single vote for every member.producer registration

producer registration wrote 8 weeks 3 days ago

I definitely enjoying every little bit of it. It is a great website and nice share. I want to thank you. Good job! You guys do a great blog, and have some great contents. Keep up the good work.
rainbow-pages

hafridi wrote 8 weeks 3 days ago

section 80g
Mmm.. good to be here in your article or post, whatever, I think I should also work hard for my own website like I see some good and updated working in your site.

arbazkhan wrote 8 weeks 4 days ago

I am doing a report on this subject. Your article is full of really useful information. I will make sure to come back to check out your posts for my next report. Cheers
Fan tshirt

Andrewmalik wrote 8 weeks 4 days ago

ngo consultancy
Really nice and interesting post. I was looking for this kind of information and enjoyed reading this one.

arbazkhan wrote 8 weeks 4 days ago

much thanks to you for an awesome post. slotastic no deposit bonus codes

Anonymous wrote 8 weeks 5 days ago

אולם אירועים שדות ים
I want you to thank for your time of this wonderful read!!! I definately enjoy every little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff of your blog a must read blog!

arbazkhan wrote 8 weeks 5 days ago

I found so many entertaining stuff in your blog, especially its discussion.
Gamerhome

somee wrote 8 weeks 5 days ago

Quality articles is the important to attract the people to pay a visit the website, that's what this web site is providing.
work from home opportunities

somee wrote 8 weeks 6 days ago

Very informative post! There is a lot of information here that can help any business get started with a successful social networking campaign!
CheatIndex

somee wrote 8 weeks 6 days ago

I am always searching online for articles that can help me. There is obviously a lot to know about this. I think you made some good points in Features also. Keep working, great job!
voyance gratuite amour

devidmiller5060 wrote 8 weeks 6 days ago

Hello! I just wish to give an enormous thumbs up for the nice info you've got right here on this post. I will probably be coming back to your weblog for more soon
forskolin supplements

arbazkhan wrote 9 weeks 22 hours ago

Blogs are totally value gift compute and energy.
shopping

Alex John wrote 9 weeks 4 days ago

I am all that much satisfied with the substance you have specified. I needed to thank you for this awesome article. PC Kaufberatung

Anonymous wrote 9 weeks 4 days ago

Thanks for writing such a good article, I stumbled onto your blog and read a few post. I like your style of writing...
rainbowpages

devidmiller5060 wrote 9 weeks 4 days ago

so happy to find good place to many here in the post, the writing is just great, thanks for the post.
Samarbeten

somee wrote 9 weeks 4 days ago

A debt of gratitude is in order for your data, it was truly exceptionally helpfull.. here

Robinajck wrote 10 weeks 37 min ago

It turned out to be Very useful to me and I am certain to every one of the observers here! see this

Robinajck wrote 10 weeks 38 min ago

I can set up my new thought from this post. It gives inside and out data. A debt of gratitude is in order for this profitable data for all,.. the original source

Robinajck wrote 10 weeks 53 min ago

I’ve been admirer of your website because I have got the great articles here.
Chris Walker - best SEO firm

Alex John wrote 10 weeks 1 day ago

My friend mentioned to me your blog, so I thought I’d read it for myself. Very interesting insights, will be back for more!
rainbow-pages

hafridi wrote 10 weeks 1 day ago

I needed to thank you for this awesome read!! I certainly getting a charge out of each and every piece of it I have you bookmarked to look at new stuff you post. forskohlii side effects

Robinjack wrote 10 weeks 2 days ago

Quality articles is the important to attract the people to pay a visit the website, that's what this web site is providing.
subway surfers

Anonymousss wrote 10 weeks 2 days ago

A debt of gratitude is in order for sharing us. resource

Robinjack wrote 10 weeks 3 days ago

Wonderful blog post. This is absolute magic from you!truly so happy a great post for me.
check train seat availability online

ANIL wrote 10 weeks 3 days ago

wow, great, I was wondering how to cure acne naturally. and found your site by google, learned a lot, now i’m a bit clear. I’ve bookmark your site and also add rss. keep us updated.
my blog

arbazkhan wrote 10 weeks 3 days ago

Thanks for sharing nice information with us. I like your post and all you share with us is up to date and quite informative, i would like to bookmark the page so I can come here again to read you, as you have done a wonderful job. obat kuat

obat kuat wrote 10 weeks 4 days ago

You should take part in a contest for one of the best blogs on the web. I will recommend this site! Agen Sbobet Agen Judi Bola Online Bola Tangkas Online

DamienDaruka wrote 10 weeks 5 days ago

I like the way you write the post with such clarity. Thanks for sharing.click here

amit wrote 10 weeks 5 days ago

Saba qamar
Wonderful blog post. This is absolute magic from you! I have never seen a more wonderful post than this one. You've really made my day today with this. I hope you keep this up!

arbazkhan wrote 10 weeks 5 days ago

Saba qamar

arbazkhan wrote 10 weeks 6 days ago

i have enjoyed this great information so much. This was really very interesting and helpful to read. I cant wait to read more from this site.
obat kuat

somee wrote 10 weeks 6 days ago

https://heyplaces.co.uk/0674179/Baby_Moments_Ltd
The web site is lovingly serviced and saved as much as date. So it should be, thanks for sharing this with us.

arbazkhan wrote 10 weeks 6 days ago

I love the humor your post has offered. I enjoyed this site a lot. Keep posting article like this. It is fun. Nice photography too!
voyance par telephone gratuite

somee wrote 10 weeks 6 days ago

Many thanks for the exciting blog posting! Simply put your blog post to my favorite blog list and will look forward for additional updates. Simply wanted to write down a word in order to say thanks to you for those wonderful tips.

essayhave ​all testimonials

arbazkhan wrote 11 weeks 2 hours ago

You know your projects stand out of the herd. There is something special about them. It seems to me all of them are really brilliant! hcg complex

DONE wrote 11 weeks 6 hours ago

I am always searching online for articles that can help me. There is obviously a lot to know about this. I think you made some good points in Features also. Keep working, great job!
rainbow-pages

devidmiller5060 wrote 11 weeks 1 day ago

Great info! I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don’t know what to say except that I have.
free nba 2k17 locker vc codes nba2k17

arbazkhan wrote 11 weeks 1 day ago

nba 2k17 locker codes generator
Great info! I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don’t know what to say except that I have.

arbazkhan wrote 11 weeks 1 day ago

Dominos Offers

rahul wrote 11 weeks 1 day ago

I am come here first time, really i like your blog. Specially i love the way your describe and present your article. Thanks for sharing such a interesting post with us. < href="https://www.dealindiaweb.com/stores/Dominos">Dominos Offers

rahul wrote 11 weeks 1 day ago

Add A Comment

The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Allowed HTML tags: <a> <em> <strong> <cite> <code> <ul> <ol> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <img> <div> <pre> <address> <h1> <h2> <h3> <h4> <h5> <h6> <blockquote> <p>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Use <bib>citekey</bib> or [bib]citekey[/bib] to insert automatically numbered references.

More information about formatting options

By submitting this form, you accept the Mollom privacy policy.