Take risks subject to vigilant evaluation and public review. 

Advocates

Compare

Daniel Botkin

“Not only is monitoring of the state of nature required, but scientific research must be an integral part of the management of nature.” Discordant Harmonies, 195

Wetland restoration source: wikimedia

If, as Daniel Botkin argues, ecosystems are subject to unpredictable and ever-changing change, how then can we act? If we can't definitively determine how many wolves there should be, or what the proper level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is, how can we responsibly manage animal populations and set carbon targets? The Postscript to Botkin's Discordant Harmonies offers a set of instructions for a land-use scheme that can allow for real-time testing and response, in which the maintenance of ecosystems is simultaneously a site for engineering pilot tests and scientific analysis.

Botkin proposes the construction of “three kinds of natural areas that we must maintain in the future.”

The first, “no-action wilderness” would be “an area untouched by direct human actions, no matter what happens. This kind of wilderness is necessary for observation as a baseline from which scientists can measure the effects of human actions elsewhere; it is an essential calibration of the dials we should set upto monitor the state of nature. Such areas are also important because they will help in the mainenance of biological diversity. Some of them may be pleasant for recreation, but some may not be, and some may become a nature never seen before.

"The second kind, preagricultural wilderness, is an area that has the appearance of landscape or seascape that most closely matches the ideal of wilderness as it has been thought about in recent decades. In North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, and other places in which the time of arrival of modern technological man is readily dated, the idea is to create natural areas that appear as they did when first viewed by the European explorers. … If natural means simply before human intervention, then all these habiats could be claimed as natural, contrary to what people really mean and really want. What people want in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area is the wilderness as seen by the voyageurs and a landscape that gives the feeling of being untouched by people.

“The conservation area, the third type of natural region, is set aside to conserve biological diversity, either for a specific species—for example, the Kirtland's warbler—or for a kind of ecological community. Because we have so altered the landscape and have allowed inadvertently only small patches of former habitats to remain, most of these areas require active intervention on our part if they are to persist.” Discordant Harmonies, 194-195.

Botkin describes a world beyond wilderness, and beyond a nature outside of human existence. “Nature in the twenty-first century will be a nature that we make.” Discordant Harmonies, 193

Commentary

Heather Rogers

"Well who sets the true cost? Where does it start? Where does it stop? I like the idea. I think it's an important and useful concept. But how do you actually do that? If you actually did that the economy would crash. We wouldn't be able to afford to buy anything. Realistically that isn't going to work. So, how do we actually deal with what the idea of true cost pricing is pointing at? Which is, how do we not destroy nature?  Let's just do that."

(Underdome Interview)

References

Comments (3830)

I definitely enjoying every little bit of it. It is a great website and nice share. I want to thank you. Good job! You guys do a great blog, and have some great contents. Keep up the good work
csgo match betting

Anonymous wrote 3 weeks 5 days ago

Very good points you wrote here..Great stuff...I think you've made some truly interesting points.Keep up the good work. Inpatient drug detox Portland

smith wrote 3 weeks 5 days ago

I was taking a gander at some of your posts on this site and I imagine this site is truly informational! Keep setting up.. unique birthday gifts for her

Learn More wrote 3 weeks 5 days ago

Eletricista, encanador, pintor, pedreiro, Pequenos reparos;Temos uma ampla variedade de serviços
http://atecnolar.com.br/

Atecnolar wrote 3 weeks 5 days ago

I am exceptionally cheerful to find your post as it will get to be on top in my gathering of most loved sites to visit. buy twitter retweets

Learn More wrote 3 weeks 5 days ago

A debt of gratitude is in order for your data, it was truly exceptionally helpfull.. haikyuudaddies.tumblr.com/

Learn More wrote 3 weeks 5 days ago

work at home opportunities
A website designed to help others locate legitimate work from home jobs !!!

arbazkhan wrote 3 weeks 6 days ago

Have a good day, bismillah Obat Pilek Menahun Herbal

Anonymous wrote 3 weeks 6 days ago

I am very happy to visit your website Cara Mengobati Benjolan Kelenjar Tiroid Di Leher

Anonymous wrote 3 weeks 6 days ago

It would be ideal if you share more like that. high TF Backlinks

SEO wrote 3 weeks 6 days ago

The best collection of Happy Mothers Day 2017 Images, Photos, Pictures, Wallpapers, Mothers Day Quotes, Wishes, Messages, Greetings, Happy Mothers Day Poems & Sayings, Mothers Day Messages, SMS, Text Messages, Mothers Day WhatsApp Status & Facebook Status, DP Images, Mothers Day FB Profile Pics, FB Timeline Cover Photos etc.
Happy Mothers Day Images

Vikas Choudhary wrote 3 weeks 6 days ago

I can set up my new thought from this post. It gives top to bottom data. A debt of gratitude is in order for this significant data for all,.. contesting a will

Learn More wrote 3 weeks 6 days ago

It ended up being Very useful to me and I am certain to every one of the observers here! line boring machine

Learn More wrote 3 weeks 6 days ago

A debt of gratitude is in order for sharing this helpful information.. man and van ealing broadway

Learn More wrote 3 weeks 6 days ago

A debt of gratitude is in order For sharing this Superb article.I utilize this Article to demonstrate my task in college.it is valuable For me Great Work. Email Findr Review

Learn More wrote 3 weeks 6 days ago

I've perused some well done here. Certainly worth bookmarking for returning to. I shock the amount of exertion you put to make such an incredible instructive site. emergency plumbers Millbrae

Learn More wrote 3 weeks 6 days ago

I've been hunting down some respectable stuff on the subject and haven't had any fortunes up until this point, You just got another greatest fan!.. tattoo supply

bradley wrote 3 weeks 6 days ago

I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made while writing this post. I am hoping for the best work of the same from you in future... Local Moms in the UK

sl786982 sl786982 wrote 4 weeks 2 hours ago

I’m excited to uncover this page. I need to to thank you for ones time for this particularly fantastic read!! I definitely really liked every part of it and i also have you saved to fav to look at new information in your site. Zlatibor apartmani

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 3 hours ago

I just found this blog and have high hopes for it to continue. Keep up the great work, its hard to find good ones. I have added to my favorites. titan roman dial watches

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 3 hours ago

Its my great pleasure to visit your blog and to enjoy your great posts here. I like it a lot. I can feel that you paid much attention for those articles, onedirectionbd

Bagha Boy wrote 4 weeks 19 hours ago

This is exactly what I was looking for. Thanks for sharing this great article! That is very interesting Smile I love reading and I am always searching for informative information like this! onedirectionbd

Bagha Boy wrote 4 weeks 19 hours ago

This substance is composed exceptionally well. Your utilization of organizing when mentioning your focuses makes your objective facts clear and straightforward. Much obliged to you. gifts for cats

japan wrote 4 weeks 20 hours ago

May day...may day... Cara Mengobati Luka Diabetes Yang Sudah Parah

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 1 day ago

Exceptionally fascinating web journal. Alot of websites I see nowadays don't generally give anything that I'm occupied with, however I'm most definately keen on this one. Recently believed that I would post and let you know. gmail login

Learn More wrote 4 weeks 1 day ago

Offering wide collection of leather briefcases made in Italy.
designer leather briefcase

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 1 day ago

Topic of online journal is phenomenal there is very nearly everything to peruse, Brilliant post. Samsung Account Remove

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 1 day ago

Your first-class knowledge about this good post can become a proper basis for such people. www.passportstatusenquiry.in

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 1 day ago

Positive site, where did u come up with the information on this posting?I have read a few of the articles on your website now, and I really like your style. Thanks a million and please keep up the effective work. happy fathers day images

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 1 day ago

Nice post. I was checking constantly this blog and I am impressed! Extremely helpful information specially the last part I care for such info a lot. nigeria jokes

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 1 day ago

Great post! I am actually getting ready to across this information, is very helpful my friend. Also great blog here with all of the valuable information you have. Keep up the good work you are doing here. Download Form 60/61

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 1 day ago

water filter
Mmm.. good to be here in your article or post, whatever, I think I should also work hard for my own website like I see some good and updated working in your site.

arbazkhan wrote 4 weeks 1 day ago

SEO Ajax
You have done a great job. I will definitely dig it and personally recommend to my friends. I am confident they will be benefited from this site

arbazkhan wrote 4 weeks 2 days ago

I am glad you take pride in what you write. This makes you stand way out from many other writers that push poorly written content.
my yerba mate store

steve Johnson wrote 4 weeks 2 days ago

I am happy you take pride in what you compose. This makes you stand way out from numerous different essayists that push inadequately composed substance. jewelry

japan wrote 4 weeks 2 days ago

Get help with Microsoft Customer support, if you have any issues related to Microsoft products like: operating systems, ms-office products, Xbox, e-mail, outlook, software’s, etc.

Visit us :- http://microsoft360-help.com

Contact Microsoft Technical Support Number +1-877-773-3202 (toll-free) for fast connectivity with Microsoft customer care, Microsoft Helpline,Microsoft support number, Windows Customer Support.

Sierra wrote 4 weeks 2 days ago

Decent to peruse your article! I am anticipating sharing your undertakings and encounters. buy trans-siberian orchestra tickets

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 2 days ago

To say the truth I am very impressed by what you told. You share tons of interesting info, neat and excellent design you’ve got here. It’s certainly one of the most informative stuff on this topic I’ve ever read.
made in italy clothes

arbazkhan wrote 4 weeks 3 days ago

Only a grinning visitant here to share the adoration (:, btw exceptional style. cbse 12th result 2017

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 3 days ago

Its my great pleasure to visit your blog and to enjoy your great posts here. I like it a lot. I can feel that you paid much attention for those articles, as all of them make sense and are very useful. this guide is highly informative

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 3 days ago

Very exciting to study this content.I would like to thank you for the initiatives you had created for composing this amazing content. Minyak Lintah Gunung

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 3 days ago

I went over this site and I trust you have a considerable measure of great data, spared to my bookmarks sources passive income

Learn More wrote 4 weeks 3 days ago

Marvelous web journal. I appreciated perusing your articles. This is really an incredible read for me. I have bookmarked it and I am anticipating perusing new articles. Keep doing awesome! produce video

Learn More wrote 4 weeks 3 days ago

good morning sms
To say the truth I am very impressed by what you told. You share tons of interesting info, neat and excellent design you’ve got here. It’s certainly one of the most informative stuff on this topic I’ve ever read.

arbazkhan wrote 4 weeks 4 days ago

I take in some new stuff from it as well, a debt of gratitude is in order for sharing your data. Stock market signals

japan wrote 4 weeks 4 days ago

Should there be another persuasive post you can share next time, I’ll be surely waiting for it.
janektombak

devidmiller5060 wrote 4 weeks 5 days ago

Your work is great and I welcome you and jumping for some more useful posts. Much obliged to you for sharing extraordinary data to us. domino q

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 5 days ago

o my mind during the last couple of centuries many changes have happened in science and education. Nowadays the optimism of students who buy custom written college papers Pegging Dating in the UK

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 5 days ago

We are experienced in all aspects of residential and commercial landscaping in Richmond Hill. We create outdoor spaces where your senses can experience that extraordinary feeling by letting beauty indulge you and provide you the escape of the demands of everyday life. sanduiche natural

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 5 days ago

This is very educational content and written well for a change. It's nice to see that some people still understand how to write a quality post.! suco detox

Anonymous wrote 4 weeks 5 days ago

Add A Comment

The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Allowed HTML tags: <a> <em> <strong> <cite> <code> <ul> <ol> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <img> <div> <pre> <address> <h1> <h2> <h3> <h4> <h5> <h6> <blockquote> <p>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Use <bib>citekey</bib> or [bib]citekey[/bib] to insert automatically numbered references.

More information about formatting options

By submitting this form, you accept the Mollom privacy policy.