Define groups exposed to and liable for risk.

Advocates

Compare

Frank Ackerman

“Some of the serious anticipated damages from climate change, such as loss of endangered species, cannot be quantified or monetized.” The Social Cost of Carbon

Frank Ackerman argues for the use of an insurance model to value and mitigate climate-related catastrophes instead of the more prominent Cost-Benefit Analysis method.  
 
Cost-Benefit Analysis is widely used to set carbon taxation rates and energy policy.  Ackerman explains the influence of CBA, which “weigh[s] the cost of curbing emissions against the expected damages from every ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) that goes into the atmosphere — a value known as the “social cost of carbon” (SCC). … While no definite SCC has been set so far, an interagency working group has endorsed a “central” estimate of $21 per ton of CO2 in 2010, or roughly 20 cents per gallon of gasoline — far too small a price incentive to prompt substantive mitigation measures. If widely adopted, this low estimate of the SCC could result in ineffectual regulations that would barely reduce U.S. emissions, if at all.” Climate Economics in Four Easy Pieces
 
Ackerman reviews and objects to three dominant models measuring SCC values: FUND, PAGE, and DICE. “Some of the serious anticipated damages from climate change, such as loss of endangered species, cannot be quantified or monetized. … Ethical judgments about the treatment of unmonetized damages play a role in any climate policy, complementing the quantitative calculations embodied in the SCC.” The Social Cost of Carbon
 
“To decide whether climate protection is worthwhile, in cost-benefit terms, we would need to know the monetary value of everything important that is being protected. There are, however, no meaningful prices for many of the benefits of health and environmental protection. What is the dollar value of a human life saved? How much is it worth to save an endangered species from extinction, or to preserve a unique location or ecosystem? Economists have made up price tags for such priceless values, but the results do not always pass the laugh test.  … Is a human life worth US$6.1 million, as estimated by the Clinton administration, based on small differences in the wages paid for more and less risky jobs? Or is it worth US$3.7 million, as the (second) Bush administration concluded on the basis of questionnaires about willingness to pay for reducing small, hypothetical risks?” Climate Economics in Four Easy Pieces
 
Ackerman argues that we need to place a higher value on future costs caused by climate change, and criticizes CBA models for miscalculating the 'discount rate,' or the method of measuring future costs relative to present-day.  “The choice of a discount rate for intergenerational impacts is an ethical judgment, not a data point that can be found in the financial pages. Lower discount rates, decreasing rates over time, and even a zero discount rate (no discounting) can be used to show that our society takes seriously the costs to be suffered by future generations. Instead, he argues for a model based on insurance, which would redistribute wealth.” The Social Cost of Carbon

“We need to buy insurance for the planet.” Climate Economics in four Easy Pieces

 
CBA, Ackerman argues, only measures “average or expected outcomes.”  But given the uncertain risks of climate change, Ackerman argues for a different calculus of risk: “faced with uncertain, potentially large risks, people do not normally act on the basis of average outcomes; instead, they typically focus on protection against worst-case scenarios.” Climate Economics in Four Easy Pieces
 
Ackerman advocates that we follow an insurance model to mitigate the risks of climate change catastrophe.  “The annual number of residential fires in the US is about 0.4 percent of the number of housing units.... Why don’t these statistics inspire you to cancel your fire insurance?... The very existence of the insurance industry is evidence of the desire to avoid or control worstcase scenarios. It is impossible for an insurance company to pay out in claims as much as its customers pay in premiums; if it did, there would be no money left to pay the costs of running the company, or the profits received by its owners. People who buy insurance are therefore guaranteed to get back less than they, on average, have paid; they (we) are paying for the security that insurance provides, if the worst should happen.” Climate Economics in Four Easy Pieces
 

Commentary

References

Comments (2335)

It's not my very first time to visit this blog; I’m visiting this daily and acquire superb info from here day by day.
Denver SEO Firm

Ackerley wrote 12 weeks 23 hours ago

Or is it worth US$3.7 million, as the (second) Bush administration concluded on the basis of questionnaires about willingness to pay for reducing small, hypothetical risksdll file fixer 3.0.81 crack

dll file fixer 3.0.81 crack wrote 12 weeks 2 days ago

A very nice stuff this is what I was looking for!!
Denver SEO Services

Alex John wrote 12 weeks 3 days ago

This is an stunning magnificent information online dance certification program

jnhogns01 wrote 12 weeks 3 days ago

I think writing a subject like this is a difficult job. But you have nailed it. what is isometric

Dylan wrote 12 weeks 5 days ago

I continuously keep on coming to your site again just in case you have posted new contents.ford custom car covers

alex wrote 12 weeks 5 days ago

I must say, I thought this was a pretty interesting read when it comes to this topic. Liked the material. . . . .
小額借貸

hafridi wrote 12 weeks 5 days ago

Excellent site. Lots of helpful information here. I'm sending it to a few friends ans also sharing in delicious. And certainly, thank you on your effort!
camp houses

Anonymous wrote 13 weeks 19 hours ago

It feels awesome to read such informative and unique articles on your website. Do Testosterone Boosters Work

Jerry wrote 13 weeks 20 hours ago

superb information it is Zapya apk, Zapya app to share files and folders,

jack sparr wrote 13 weeks 20 hours ago

Salah satu cara aman memilih jasa sewa mobil di malang batu yang terpercaya dan profesional bahkan sudah banyak memiliki pelanggan adalah dengan bertanya ke kenalan anda dan meminta rekomendasi jasa sewa mobil malang batu yang profesional. Anda bisa membayarkan uang pemesanan jika memesan secara online dengan transfer ke rekening bank dari pihak sewa mobil terpercaya di malang batu tersebut agar mobil yang anda sewa terjadwalkan sesuai dengan waktu yang anda inginkan. Silahkan pesan disini . Sewa mobil di malang batu profesional terpercaya sewa mobil murah di malang.
Berkunjung ke objek wisata gunung bromo sebaiknya pesan paket wisata bromo midnight agar lebih hemat dan perjalanan anda terorganisir dengan baik. Harga paket wisata bromo midnight dari kota malang untuk jumlah minimal 6 orang hanya dipatok dengan harga Rp.300.000 saja dengan fasilitas transport avanza pulang pergi, transport jeep untuk explore wisata bromo, tiket wisata, snack dan minuman. Dalam paket wisata gunung bromo tersebut akan mengunjungi puncak penanjakan, kawah bromo, pasir berbisik dan padang savana. Jika anda ingin fasilitas yang lain seperti naik kuda di gunung bromo maka nanti memakai biaya pribadi. Paket wisata gunung bromo dari malang . Explore bromo dengan memesan paket wisata bromo midnight harga murah klik info berikut.
Anda bermasalah dengan organ kewanitaan yang kurang menjepit dan tidak menggigit saat berhungan badan denga pasangan? Kini telah hadir ramuan tradisional dari madura yaitu jamu sari rapet asli yang berbentuk kapsul, pil dan serbuk dalam kemasan sachet agar cara mengkonsumsinya mudah dan praktis bisa dibawa kemana saja. Adanya cairan dalam organ Miss V itu memang normal bagi wanita dan jika tidak ada itu malah tidak normal sebab cairan dalam vagina itu berfungsi sebagai pelumas saat hubungan intim sama pasangan. Tapi dengan mengkonsumsi jamu sari rapet asli madura ini, cairan di vagina itu tidak dihilangkan melainkan cuma dikurangi saja sehingga saat berhubungan tidak terasa sakit dan tidak lecet saat mister p penetrasi ke lubang vagina. Pesan jamu sari rapet asli tradisional madura klik pemesanan disini.
Obat herbal madura yang khasiatnya bisa untuk menjadikan miss v seperti berdenyut-denyut saat berhubungan intim dengan suami adalah jamu empot-empot madura, dengan bentuk berupa kapsul, pil dan serbuk sachet. Mengkonsumsi empot-empot madura tidak memiliki efek samping dan tidak berbahaya bagi kesehatan tubuh karena ramuan empot-empot madura asli terbuat dari bahan-bahan herbal yang diracik secara aman dan higienis menggunakan tumbuhan langka yang hanya bisa ditemukan di pulau madura saja. Cara pemakaiannya juga cukup mudah yaitu cukup mengkonsumsi 4 butir empot-empot madura asli di pagi hari dan 4 butir di malam hari setelah makan. Harga jamu empot-empot madura asli di pasaran berkisar antara 50.000 hingga 100.000 rupiah saja. Dengan harga jual tersebut anda akan mendapatkan manfaat sebuah hubungan intim yang lengket dengan suami karena suami akan merasa puas saat organ intim anda dapat memijat-mijat sendiri dan berdenyut nikmat. Ramuan empot-empot asli madura . Ramuan empot-empot madura dan apa saja kegunaannya bagi organ intim kewanitaan baca lengkap disini.
Tubuh yang montok dan seksi merupakan dambaan setiap wanita karena jika wajah cantik tapi tubuhnya gemuk maka kecantikannya akan berkurang. Namun jika wajah pas pasan tapi memiliki tubuh yang sintal dan singset maka akan kelihatan lebih cantik dari biasanya. Jika and menginginkan tubuh yang singset dan langsing maka minum jamu galian singset asli ramuan madura yang tidak memiliki efek samping sama sekali. Bahan yang digunakan jamu galian singset juga terbuat dari bahan-bahan alami tradisolional. Cara pembuatannya juga juga secara bersih dan higienis sehingga aman dikonsumsi dalam jangka panjang. Ramuan jamu galian singset cocok untuk wanita paruh baya atau ibu-ibu yang sudah memiliki anak agar suami juga senang melihat istrinya yang montok aduhai. Khasiat lain jamu galian singset asli madura baca info produk.

iklima wrote 13 weeks 22 hours ago

Nice one on risk sharing.
Regards,
Ankur
Top Native ad networks

Ankur wrote 13 weeks 1 day ago

Nice post. Epom Market Review

Ankur wrote 13 weeks 1 day ago

Nice one on risk sharing.
Regards

John wrote 13 weeks 1 day ago

I definitely enjoying every little bit of it. It is a great website and nice share. I want to thank you. Good job! You guys do a great blog, and have some great contents. Keep up the good work.
stomach sleeper personality

Anonymous wrote 13 weeks 1 day ago

Thank you for your interesting infomation.
High Trust Flow Backlinks

AsLook wrote 13 weeks 1 day ago

I am satisfied you take take outstanding entertainment in in what you make webpage

tnrylnds01 wrote 13 weeks 2 days ago

The post is composed in exceptionally a decent way and it contains numerous helpful data for me. Google Cardboard Branded

peter wrote 13 weeks 3 days ago

Call us for Norton Antivirus Technical Experts. We'll solve your Norton Antivirus issues within seconds. We have excellent for support. You just call and solve your query.

https://norton-support.tumblr.com/

www.norton.com/setup, norton support wrote 13 weeks 5 days ago

This is a splendid site! I'm exceptionally content with the remarks!..
AliExpress review

Anonymous wrote 14 weeks 1 hour ago

I acknowledge all that you have added as far as anyone is concerned base.Admiring the time and exertion you put into your web journal and nitty gritty data you offer.Thanks. Home Page

peter wrote 14 weeks 22 hours ago

This article made my day. It feels very accomplishing to visit this kind of website. isometric definition

Sarah wrote 14 weeks 1 day ago

Im no grasp, however I trust you virtually made a phenomenal point. You unquestionably completely recognise what youre speakme approximately, and i will actually get in the back of that. affordable seo packages

Anonymous wrote 14 weeks 1 day ago

estimated by the Clinton administration, based on small differences in the wages paid for more and less risky jobs? Or is it worth US$3.7 million, as the (second) Bushcomment jouer a minecraft |
psn free code

comment jouer a minecraft | psn free code wrote 14 weeks 2 days ago

I read that Post and got it fine and educational. If it's not too much trouble share more like that... Find out more

peter wrote 14 weeks 2 days ago

I came onto your blog while focusing just slightly submits. Nice strategy for next, I will be bookmarking at once seize your complete rises
facebook

imranuddin wrote 14 weeks 3 days ago

Usually affected tell you that you have clients preferred me who get satisfaction from in your implement car accident lawyer buffalo

knsmiths01 wrote 14 weeks 4 days ago

I have bookmarked your site and I am looking forward to reading new articles from you in the future. NooCube

Nona wrote 15 weeks 1 day ago

Thank you so much Love your blog..
white undershirts

Aliyna seo wrote 15 weeks 5 days ago

This is a great inspiring article.I am pretty much pleased with your good work.You put really very helpful information...
voyance-amour-eternel.com

Aliyna Tech wrote 15 weeks 6 days ago

There are some interesting points in time in this article but I don’t know if I see all of them center to heart. There is some validity but I will take hold opinion until I look into it further. Good article, thanks and we want more! Added to FeedBurner as well Website Visit Visit Web Read More Information

Ketill wrote 16 weeks 6 hours ago

I completely particular determining it your the incredibly best item factors client syracuse chiropractor

brkrys01 wrote 16 weeks 12 hours ago

It is an awesome site.. The Design looks great.. Continue working like that!.
high quality backlinks

Approach SEO wrote 16 weeks 1 day ago

The sites you have referred was good. Thanks for sharing...
philipiak

Anonymous wrote 16 weeks 2 days ago

Your articles are very well written and unique.
HqEssays

Alex John wrote 16 weeks 4 days ago

I am extremely delighted in for this web journal. Its a useful subject. It help me all that much to take care of a few issues. Its chance are so awesome and working style so fast. free slot machines

jk wrote 16 weeks 5 days ago

thank you for your interesting infomation.
diabetes tipo 2

Aliyna seo wrote 16 weeks 5 days ago

I see you have a wonderful website; especially your contents were very useful. hydroxycut black review

Diego wrote 16 weeks 5 days ago

Really nice post. Thanks for sharing!!! :)
Ad Networks

Ankur gupta wrote 16 weeks 5 days ago

wow, great, I was wondering how to cure acne naturally. and found your site by google, learned a lot, now i’m a bit clear. I’ve bookmark your site and also add rss. keep us updated.
legname nordest

hafridi wrote 16 weeks 6 days ago

Your kind words did lighten my knowledge in writing. Please do keep on posting more updates. Niacin Max reviews

Harrison wrote 16 weeks 6 days ago

Hey, great blog, but I don’t understand how to add your site in my rss reader. Can you Help me please?
XD series wheels

XD series wheels wrote 17 weeks 3 hours ago

I really appreciate for this great information..
PERMEN GO!

Anonymous wrote 17 weeks 2 days ago

The post is composed in exceptionally a decent way and it contains numerous helpful data for me. frogs

peter wrote 17 weeks 3 days ago

Great! It sounds good. Thanks for sharing..
booty shorts

Anonymous wrote 17 weeks 3 days ago

I don't cerebrate some of websites offer this typewrite of assemblage.casino senza deposito

alex wrote 17 weeks 4 days ago

The blog is good enough I again n again read this. http://www.annakwoodslaw.com/sitemap/

raymendavis wrote 17 weeks 4 days ago

The complete blogs are really inconceivable and definitely everyone will share this information.First Security Service

Jorge wrote 17 weeks 5 days ago

a debt of gratitude is in order for this usefull article, sitting tight for this article like this once more. read more

robinjack wrote 17 weeks 5 days ago

Add A Comment

The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Allowed HTML tags: <a> <em> <strong> <cite> <code> <ul> <ol> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <img> <div> <pre> <address> <h1> <h2> <h3> <h4> <h5> <h6> <blockquote> <p>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Use <bib>citekey</bib> or [bib]citekey[/bib] to insert automatically numbered references.

More information about formatting options

By submitting this form, you accept the Mollom privacy policy.